Forging metal is one of the most ancient methods that has been practiced for centuries by people. In this manufacturing method, hammers, presses, and rollers are used to transform and shape a particular metal. Most metals can be forged by this method, but mostly alloy steel, carbon steel, and stainless steel are shaped. Some metals are excluded and cannot be shaped through the forging process because they are too soft. These metals are brass, aluminum, and copper.
Forging is considered to be a very effective method of metal transformation because it involves outstanding mechanical properties with the least amount of waste. This method can be performed at different temperatures: hot and cold forging operations. In this article, we will discuss several differences between these two processes. So read on to learn more!
Hot Forging Process
The process of hot forging requires extreme heat to mold the metal. But it cannot be said that you can transform any metal with intense heat. Every metal will need a specific temperature at which it will start to deform. For example, average steel will deform at about 2100-degree Fahrenheit. The aluminum alloys of steel will have a different temperature, and so will the copper alloy. The high temperature only stops the strain from becoming rigid and stiff.
Advantages Of Hot Forging
For steel forging, the hot process is preferred because it has quite a lot of advantages:
- Low-work toughening
- Upsurges the ductility ratio
- Recrystallization procedure Drop in chemical consistencies
- An effective method for hard metals just like steel
- Standardized grain structure
Cold forging process
Cold forging is done by using a displacement method to transform the shape of the metal. A compressive power compresses the metal in between a die and a punch, and room temperature is maintained. The compress isn’t released until the metal is molded to the die’s silhouette. Rolling, drawing, heading, extruding, pressing, and spinning are some of the techniques used in the successful cold forging process. Usually, a soft metal is preferred for this method to work, like aluminum.
Advantages To Cold Forging
- Cold forging is a less expensive process compared to hot forging.
- The product of cold forging barely requires any finishes.
- The process of cold forging is considered to be more eco-friendlier than the process of hot forging because it produces less waste and minimizes energy uses hence reducing carbon print.
- Cold forging is preferred because it produces materials with top-notch surfacing.
- It produces authentic and consistent parts.
- Cold forging makes use of material efficiently and intelligently.
Cost Efficiency In Hot And Cold Forging
The optimization of cost in cold forging begins with raw material. To cut the most price in carrying out the process, all techniques and tools should be used. The manufacturer should also be an expert and should know all about the process and its complexities.
Cost efficiency can be achieved with a bit of difficulty in the process of hot forging because the manufacturers have to use advanced methods. These methods include; reloading, metallurgy, surface treatment, and heat treatment.
The Bottom line
Hot and cold forging are two very different methods that are used to treat different materials. Hot forging shapes and deforms steel alloys and other materials, while cold forging is done to materials that are already soft metals and easily malleable. Both methods used different techniques, and quite a different budget is spent on both processes in comparison.